Since the 20th century, there have been a number of proposed human missions to Mars, both by government agencies and by private companies. Most of the human machine concepts as contemplated by the national government space programs will not be preconceived notions of colonial rule.
Systems such as those temporarily orchestrated by NASA, Roscosmos, and ESA are intended solely as test machines, with the establishment of an existing base but not yet the main objective.
Colonization requires the establishment of permanent settlements that have the potential to expand and sustain themselves. The first two proposals to build settlements on Mars were Mars Direct and Semi-Direct concepts, inspired by Robert Zubrin, a promoter of Mars’ colonization.
The atmosphere on Mars is about one percent of the Earth’s atmosphere. Martian air is made up of more than 95 percent carbon dioxide. Since Mars does not have the same magnetic field as Earth, the Red Planet cannot block harmful radiation from space.
Inhabitable Cold Temperatures
Mars is also colder than Earth. On Mars, the average temperature is about 210 Kelvin, or about 81 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 64 degrees Celsius). However, on Earth the average global average temperature is about 290 Kelvin, or 62 degrees F (16.8 C).
Mars also has two small moons, Phobos and Deimos. Both are 14 miles (22.5 km) and 8 miles (13 km) wide, respectively.
Colonies on Mars may need to draw a new type of clock or calendar. The days on Mars are called “sols” by scientists, and are slightly longer than Earth’s days. A single Martian sol is approximately 24.63 hours, and Earth Day is 23.94 hours.
The Martian year is also longer than the Earth because it takes Mars longer to orbit the sun. One year on Mars takes 687 days, compared with 365 days on Earth.
Problems On Living In Low Gravity
The astronauts at the International Space Station have not been in existence for so long, and we do not know what problems the human body could face in three years of weight loss.
Long Distance From Earth
Depending on the location of the Earth and Mars, it may take three years or more for astronauts to get there.
During the trip, if something goes wrong, and they need to contact Earth staff, it may take up to 20 minutes for the radio signals to be received, and twice for the oral response to be returned.
Long-term medical examinations will also be a challenge. For example, electrocardiogram (ECG) data has a similar delay in Earth transmission.
Problem Of Availability Of Water
NASA has already discovered water on Mars that could help sustain human life, but most of it is frozen. It is only up in the northern part of Mars.
In September 2020, Mars Express, a European Space Agency spacecraft, orbiting Mars, discovered a large ice rink under the saltwater south of Mars. However, that would have to be considered for human use.
Lack Of Magnetic Field To Protect us From Harmful Ultraviolet Rays
We know that we are protected here on Earth by its magnetosphere that diverts harmful particles from the sun and cosmic rays from distant poles. That is what causes Aurora Borealis (northern lights) as well.
This, we would need some other method to protect us from these harmful cosmic rays that are entering the planet. These cosmic rays could be fatal to humans, so it becomes more difficult to establish a civilization.
The fact is that we would never be able to move outside without protective suits. Even if it happens to be any kind of atmosphere, we still can’t go out without protection as we do on Earth.
All our day to day activities would need to be done inside buildings that protect us from cosmic rays while living on Mars. Most of the buildings would be made underground.
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