Stephen Hawking, a physicist unlike any other, is a cultural icon best renowned for his contributions to the realms of physics and mathematics. The study of black holes occupied most of his time. Stephen Hawking’s discoveries of black holes have provided answers to a variety of problems about these enigmatic cosmic objects. What was Stephen Hawking’s theory of Black Holes, and Hawking’s contribution to black holes? We will find it out in this article.
What you will know in this article:
What are black holes?
The common knowledge says that black holes are massive vacuums that suck everything into it, including light. Essentially, black holes are a huge amount of mass condensed into a small region, which makes their force of gravity quite large. It is large enough to attract anything in its surroundings and engulf including light. As it sucks light as well, we cannot directly see black holes.
Any object nearby a black hole tends to fall towards it. Astrophysicists are able to identify lots of black hole by observing objects revolving around invisible things. The gravitational pull reveals that there is something completely invisible, or a black hole.
Most of the black holes are stellar black holes, i.e. they take birth when a star dies whose internal pressure pushing outwards can no longer counteract the huge force of gravity. This compresses the matter remaining and collapses into a black hole many times the mass of the Sun.
Stephen Hawking’s Derivation of Black Hole
Stephen Hawking in 1971 derived the black hole area theorem from Einstein’s theory of general relativity. It states that the surface area of a black hole cannot decrease over time. This rule is closely related to another law that is on the same lines. It is the second law of thermodynamics. It states that the entropy of a closed system always increases. Since the entropy of a black hole is proportional to the surface area, it is clear that they both must increase.
A black hole’s surface area is set out by a spherical boundary. It is known as the event horizon. This is the point beyond which nothing can escape, not even light. According to Hawking, as the surface area of a black hole increases with its mass, and no objects thrown into it can exit, its surface area can’t decrease.
But since a black hole shrinks with more spins, this made the researchers wonder whether it would be possible to throw an object inside hard enough to make the hole spin enough to decrease its area.
What was the importance of Stephen Hawking’s theory?
Stephen Hawking’s theory of Black holes was his one of the most significant contribution to physics. It gave a mathematical proof to the presence of black holes that were predicted by Einstein’s theory of Relativity.
Stephen Hawking was able to prove some difficult mathematical theorems about the equations of gravity proposed by Einstein. He also showed some circumstances under which the equations broke down. These breakdowns are called singularities.
It is simply a point in space-time where every law of physics breaks and they make no sense. Hawking proved the presence of singularity in a black hole. It was a point of infinite density in a black hole and legitimated Einstein’s theory of relativity.
What was Stephen Hawking radiation?
Stephen Hawking demonstrated that black holes emit radiations. He believed that size of a black hole is constant. As they radiate energy, it reduces their masses and leading to their shrinkage. These radiations are termed Hawking Radiations.
In 1974, Stephen Hawking proposed that subatomic particle pair arising near the event horizon may result in escaping of a particle from the vicinity of a black hole. Whereas the other particle of negative energy disappears into it. This flow reduces the mass until it disappears completely in a burst of radiation.
Is Stephen Hawking’s theory of Black holes correct?
Stephen Hawking’s theory of black holes considered a milestone in the field is often questioned for its legitimacy. The Information Paradox was one such anomaly that wasn’t explained by his theories. According to him, when a star dies, all the mass collapse which leads to the formation of a black hole. All the information of the star such as the speed of its spin, size and density is contained in itself.
But when a black hole collapses, all the information is lost. This is against the principle of quantum physics. Information cannot be destroyed, it always stays constant. However, the paradox was debunked by arguing that information isn’t lost but is still inside the particles of the radiation emitted.
Stephen Hawking was so ahead of his time that it wasn’t possible to support his works with experimental pieces of evidence. For much of his lifetime, most of the evidence were not available. He wasn’t able to receive a Noble Prize but if he was alive till now, he would have received the award for his works. He was indeed a force to be reckoned with in the field of physics and his contributions are unmatched.
Stephen Hawking’s theory of black holes was major milestone in the field of physics. His studies are now playing a huge role in space exploration and building foundation of higher studies and discoveries for future scientists.
Thank you for spending your precious time reading the article “Stephen Hawking’s theory of black holes”. I hope it must have vet your curiosity for more black hole related articles. You can also read Unicorn Black Hole, a black hole scientist have found which is nearest to the earth. Do comment what other articles you would want to read.